Tangier International Zone

Creation of an international zone

But the balance of power begins to change again at the end of the 19th century.. The influx of European capital and the active colonization of economically backward regions lead to the growth of European interests in Morocco. Due to geographic proximity, the highest chances of direct annexation of the city were with royal Spain. This was largely facilitated by the fact, what in 1900 year of 40 000 residents of Tangier, least, 7,5 thousand. (18,8 %) were actually the Spaniards and about 1,5 thousand. other Europeans (Portuguese, Italians, the French and so on.). Moreover, in the city lived about 10 thousand. Jewish (25,0 %), mostly Hispanic. Only about half of the population of Tangier was Muslim, moreover, they also fell into two unequal groups: predominantly reef Berbers around 15 thousand. people (37,5 %) and Arabs around 5 thousand. (12,5 %). This motley ethnic composition of the population was a characteristic feature of Tangier for several decades.. Despite the proximity of Spain, its economic potential at the beginning of the twentieth century was largely undermined by defeats in the war with the United States, internal instability, a long period of stagnation and economic backwardness, dependence on other northern European countries. Economically more advanced France joined the fight for Morocco. However, Great Britain opposed its further strengthening in the region., Germany and USA. Spain was able to carve out a small strip of ownership, turned into Spanish Morocco. France established its protectorate over the rest of the country. However, Tangier itself with the adjacent territory was allocated to a zone with a special, but not fully prescribed regime. At this time, the city was economically dependent on France.. French has become the main international language.

IN 1923 году Франция, Great Britain and Spain secured a convention on the special status of Tangier, which was also declared an international demilitarized neutral zone. In fact, the city was ruled by the governments of these three countries.. TO 1928 году к ним формально присоединились также Италия, Portugal and Belgium. Nominally, he remained under the control of the Moroccan Sultan, but actually came under the authority of the International Control Committee and other bodies of international administration. World War II caused confusion. France was occupied by Nazi Germany. Spain took advantage of this, and in 1940-1945 she personally occupied Tangier. After the end of the war, the status of the international zone was restored 31 August 1945 of the year.


However, demographic shifts in Tangier itself have led to an increase in the Muslim component, dissatisfied with the dominance of the European regime. After the proclamation of independence in Morocco 1956 Tangier was reunited with him in 1957 year. With the tacit support of the USSR and on the basis of an official decision of the conference of the countries participating in the agreement on the status Tangier in October 1956 of the year (France, Spain, United Kingdom, USA, Italy and independent Morocco) the international zone was liquidated and became part of the Kingdom of Morocco. The European and Jewish population left the city almost completely.


The city was captured by the Arabs from Byzantium at the end of the 7th century and was thoroughly Islamized, although a fairly large Romano-Jewish diaspora remained in it throughout the Muslim rule. However, after the successful completion of the Reconquista in Iberia, the reverse offensive of the strengthened European powers began on the Mauritanian territories in the Maghreb. Already in 1471 году Танжер был захвачен Португалией. In 1580-1643 it was under the control of Spain. In 1643-1661 he returned to the hands of the Portuguese. IN 1661 year, thanks to long-standing Anglo-Portuguese cooperation, was given to England as a dowry of the Portuguese princess Catherine, married to the English king Charles II. But due to the gradual decline of Portuguese military power and the insufficiently strengthened Great Britain, which, moreover, had no practical experience in the fight against the Mauritanian countries, Tangier was lost. IN 1684 year he was captured by the Moroccan sultan. To shield the city from further European attacks, Tangier was fortified and turned into one of the capitals of the Moroccan state.

literature[rule | edit the code]

  • USSR and Arab countries, 1917—1960. Sat.. documents. — M., 1961. - FROM. 228, 287—288.
  • Durdenevsky V. К ликвидации зоны Танжера // Международная жизнь. — 1957. — № 1.
  • Crowder М. Tanger: International city // Geographical. — Королевское географическое общество, 1957. — Vol. 29, № 12. — P. 596—606.
  • Tanger depuis l’indépendance du Marock // Maghreb. — Январь-февраль 1966. — № 13. — P. 38—51.
  • Antony Beevor. The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War 1936–1939 (Eng.). — London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson (Eng.)Russian., 2006. — ISBN 0-29784832-1.
  • Finlayson, Iain (Eng.)Russian.. Tangier: City of the Dream (neoprene.). — HarperCollins, 1992. — ISBN 0-00217857-5.
  • Stahn, Carsten. The Law and Practice of International Territorial Administration: Versailles to Iraq and Beyond (Eng.). — Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. — ISBN 978-0-52187800-5.
  • Stuart, Graham h. The International City of Tangier (neoprene.). — 2nd. — Stanford: Stanford University Press (Eng.)Russian., 1955.
Rate article