- Architect with a strong character and a warrior
- Architectural views and the history of
- Origin of the word and its meaning
- Yeni-Jami (new)
- Helpful information. How to find, where to go
- Features of the architecture
- The remarkable mosque: architecture and interior
- I recommend you watch:
- Getting there?
- Legend of the six minarets
- Eyüp Sultan
- Blue Mosque: Yerevan
- History of the building
- What you need to know visitors?
- A little history
- why blue, if gray?
- helpful hints
- History of the Blue Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey
- Who built the Blue Mosque in Istanbul?
- Behavior rules
- In a dream
- About eternal matter with humor and practical note
Architect with a strong character and a warrior
Order received from the Sultan, and who built the Blue Mosque, and even made some differences with accepted architectural standards, It makes the building especially the magnificent and unique?
The man turned out to be Sedefkar Mehmet Aga, student of the famous Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan Empire. Architect, he did not immediately. Talent manifested itself during his service in the regiment of Janissaries, where Mehmet Aga was responsible for the construction of water supply systems. Also in the construction of the Blue Mosque in Turkey it involved about 1500 working.
Sultan Ahmed wanted to build a big building, transcends all existing, but the identity of religious laws. According to the rules should be four minarets. The king ordered to make them out of pure gold - Altyn. Mehmet Aga misheard or distracted for a moment and made changes in the project - six minarets, which in Turkish sounds, as "Alta".
Architectural views and the history of
In appearance, there are two types of minarets:
- with a circular section;
And if we trace the history of, it had previously built a ramp outside, to raise to the site, a rope ladder. Now these are not built, and is located inside the building stairway, often spiral. Outside decorated with minarets, and continue to do so now!, openwork masonry, thread, openwork balconies made, obkladыvayut hlazuryu.
The beauty of the architecture of mosques defies description, specially constructed previously, but they, who have never been in Muslim countries, poorly represent the minaret, what it is. A photo, of course, will not be able to convey all the grandeur, but will give a general idea.
In the world you can find a mosque with one, and two lots of minarets. The largest number - 9, at Al-Haram, built in Mecca. And why they are a different number? This is due to the size of the building itself. In small - one, in the medium - two. Sultan Mosque also have from 4 to 6.
In Samarra (Iraq) see Al-mallow, you do not immediately understand, that before you minaret. "What it is?» – will ask you, so it is very unusual. Made in the shape of a truncated cone and helical ramp with steps, going outside. Little resemblance minarets, which is usually used to seeing.
trying to understand, minaret – What it is and why is so important for Muslims, They put forward various theories. One of them – this heritage is derived from one of the Wonders of the World - Lighthouse of Alexandria, who had a similar structure. Though it never came to our days, but it saw Egyptian architects of the reign of the Mamluk and simply adopted. But this only explains the origin of the rectangular minarets.
Theory of the origin of minarets with a circular cross-section,: Rome erected a column in honor of significant victories. With a round cross-section minaret, what it is, no matter how the symbol of victory of Islam. Such buildings are characteristic of Afghanistan and Iran. Naturally, that we are not talking about modern buildings.
Origin of the word and its meaning
The most common meaning of the word used in the architecture. If we talk about the structure of, then the question of whether, minaret, what, can answer, it is a high tower with a platform at the top, which call upon all the faithful to prayer muezzin. These towers are built next to mosques, creating a special composition. Above each Muslim city or village he rises, silhouette it is difficult to confuse with any other.
The word traces its origins from the Arabic “manara”, which literally translates as a lighthouse or tower. It plays an important role in Islam Minaret, because the time of prayer (prayer) Muslims depends on the sunrise and sunset and varies. Remember every day and watch the clock, when it comes time to give praise to God, difficult, and even can be confused, but it was with this building balcony muezzin will call and remind, it was time.
Its name does not mean, it is new, newly built. It was built in 16 century. Began construction of the mother of Sultan Mehmed III - Valide Sultan Safie, which had a huge influence on his son. Because of palace intrigues Safie was removed from the court after the death of his son, and the construction was interrupted, building gradually destroys.
It was only later, 50 s other Valide Sultan - Khadija Turhan - donated huge amounts of money for the completion of. Full name - "Eyni Valide Sultan Cami".
The complex of buildings includes a school, mausoleum, hospital, madrasah. It located in a very lively area and there are a lot of visitors. Nearby is the Egyptian Bazaar. Here we already wrote about it. Address: Rustem Pasa Mh., 34116 Istanbul
Helpful information. How to find, where to go
As already mentioned, The Blue Mosque is located in the heart of the historic district of Sultanahmet,.
Sultanahmet Square (Sultanahmet) Trams branches T1 “Zeytinburnu” — “dushegreykah” (“Zeitinburnu” — “pockets”), stretching almost across the historic city center.
Exit need to stop, which is called “Sultanahmet. Blue Mosque”.
The Blue Mosque is 3 entry.
Input A "looks" right on the Cathedral of St. Sophia, there is the most crowded. Looks like this:
This view from the Hagia Sophia:
The entrance is from the Hippodrome, which is to the right of the entrance A (if you stand to face him), just behind the row of stalls:
How view, here quite a bit of people.
Login C - special. Above him, unlike other, hanging chain. At one time, this input can use the Sultan, who rode into the courtyard of the mosque, without dismounting. And to show their humility and respect for God, to emphasize his own insignificance before him, it was necessary to bend each time, driving under low hanging chain.
This is the view from the Museum of Turkish and Islamic Art, located directly opposite the entrance C.
Features of the architecture
The mosque was to exceed in beauty all Muslim buildings in the city. To do this, choose the appropriate place - a hill near the temple of Sofia. But the monument in the Byzantine style is not combined with the traditional Muslim architecture.
The architect designed the building, that does not violate the style of the nearby Hagia Sophia and included all of the rules adopted in the Muslim world in the construction of a new facility.
The complex consisted:
- from internal and external patios;
- charitable institutions;
Hospital and refuge for pilgrims killed in 19 century. You can get inside through 6 the gate. But the tourists only pass through the south gate, newly constructed. Main entrance to the exclusive use of Muslim. Gentiles access denied.
The main dome is held in 5 columns. Each pillar diameter reaches 5 m. established 260 Venetian windows with stained-glass windows (not preserved, replaced with ordinary glass). For conventional ablution found 9 fountains.
Worship Allah, Muslims are everywhere, except for baths, latrines and cemeteries. The mosque in Islam - is the House of the Most High. There come the faithful to pray. In the Middle Ages it has been the practice in the territory of mosques equip religious schools and hospitals. There could also go travelers and pilgrims, it was always guaranteed a shelter.
Mosques are divided by functional features. For small communities do not need much space. Quarterly mosque can provide an opportunity to perform the five daily congregational prayers and collect residents to address organizational issues. In the town, except quarterly, usually, equip another one or more of cathedral mosques. They are designed to perform prayers crowded on Fridays and take pilgrims to the special commemorative dates. These places are all over the world in countries, where respect for religious freedom of choice. In Istanbul especially popular Blue Mosque, in Mecca - Al-Haram.
Namaz-Goh - a special Mosque for the most important Muslim holiday of Eid al-Adha. Usually it is built outside the city in the open. There memorable day rushes large number of people.
The remarkable mosque: architecture and interior
Description of the Blue Mosque in Istanbul's start with the architectural features. There is a mix of style - classical Ottoman and Byzantine. During the construction of used stone and marble.
Mosque differs six minarets, and it is surprising. According to one version, architect did not hear, he was told to do. Instead of the word "six", he heard the "gold" (that consonant in Turkish). But this legend is hard to believe that at the registration, that the Sultan personally monitor the status of the construction of the mosque. He came every week, to ensure the faithful execution of the builders of problems during operation.
The second version - is closer to reality. Sultan decided to break laws, to make more magnificent Blue Mosque, than the Hagia Sophia. It was a major in Istanbul and had four minarets. Among the clergy there was outrage at the sultan's pride - that amount was only in the Holy Mosque of Makkah. But the sultan decided not to change anything, but I paid for the construction of the seventh minaret to Mecca.
The name "Blue" is derived from the presence of iznikskih tiles - they were impressive amount. They were used to decorate the interior. Pottery is also delivered from Iznik. Ahmed did not spare funds, wanting to get a grand building. He even banned the factories to use the products for other construction projects.
Above the central hall is a dome, height is 43 m. It is decorated with inscriptions: cited quotations from the Koran and the words of the Prophet Muhammad. Support for the dome serve 4 column. If you look at the pattern - you can see color images. Play a major role tulips, depicted 50 ways. We spread out on the floor carpets. Strikes and natural lighting of the Blue Mosque - 260 window.
I recommend you watch:
- Mihrab - prayer bowl with black stone of Mecca;
- West input Sultan chain - it had to be tilted, to symbolize his position before Allah;
- Minarets - each on the balcony;
- Mausoleum - the burial of Ahmed I;
- Courtyard the size of a Mosque.
To get to the attractions just from every corner of Istanbul. The main transport - the tram T1.
Also be able to take the subway or train. On the subway ride on the second branch, and get off at the stop «Zeytinburnu». Hence, the complex is visible. You take a little walk and find yourself the target.
If you do not want to wander around the city, and you want to get there comfortably and quickly, use a taxi. Drivers dovezut in minutes from any corner of the capital. Object - known, confusion will arise.
walk from the airport shuttle service. Distance from saint buildings - 22 km. If you stayed in the city for a long time and rented a car, Drive yourself. Use the navigator, to get lost. Only with parking problems. The car will have to leave away.
Magnificent building deserves a detailed acquaintance. Do not disregard the Istanbul shrine.
Legend of the six minarets
Guides tell the legend of 6 minaret. The thing is, that the conflict arose during construction.
To distinguish themselves from other padishahs, exalt himself and show his own power, lord ordered not set 4 minarets, a 6. While the main shrine in Mecca was decorated 5 minaretami. Imams have seen in the decision of Ahmed demonstration of pride and disobedience.
To avoid scandal, Ahmed was forced to allocate additional funds for the extension of the minaret in Mecca. There they became 7. Only after this scandal was extinguished.
Another version says, that six minarets built by mistake. The architect did not hear the commandments of the Sultan of, that the tower must be made of gold (gold), and bringeth 6 (gold) minarets.
The building is located in the quarter of Eyüp, at the end of the Golden Horn Bay. It attracts thousands of pilgrims hoping to touch the miracle and feel the goodness of the place - here in the mausoleum, part of the complex, Eyup Sultan buried (Abu Ayyup al-Ansari), who was a companion of the Prophet Muhammad. It is the fourth largest in the Muslim world.
Eyüp Sultan Mosque is decorated in bright colors, inside the dome is decorated with tiles, dominated by green and blue tone. There are inside and its magic - a "prayer box", is barred from the Arabic script. It is believed, that prayer, spoken here - "the closest thing to God".
Address: Eyüp Sultan Mosque. Working hours: every day with 9 to 18 hours (except prayer time).
Blue Mosque: Yerevan
He erected a shrine in the days, when Armenia was a province of Iran. It was in 1766 year. Huseynali Khan ordered the construction of the mosque as a symbol of friendship between the Armenian and Iranian people. At that time, it was the eighth largest mosque in the khanate. She had four minarets.
Until today has reached only one, three were destroyed during the war. The mosque was preserved only because, that it was equipped with ammunition. The name is due to the color of the dome. He is faced with faience soft blue hue. The ancient name of "Heavenly Mosque" was given for its similarity with the clouds on a clear day.
Armenia today is the only shrine of Islam and cultural center of the Iranian community of Yerevan. The Blue Mosque is open to visitors. Guide will take interested persons on the territory of, show exhibition hall, tells the story. Daily prayers and the Friday sermon is currently held at the shrine.
History of the building
At the beginning of the reign of Ahmed I the Ottoman Empire waged two wars at the same time - with Austria and Iran. 11 November 1606 year with Austria was signed Zhitvatoroksky world, according to which the Turks refused to demand an annual tribute to Austria and recognized the imperial title of the Habsburgs. This defeat and other events led to, that the authority has been undermined by Turkey, and the Sultan Ahmed I decided to build a mosque and thus appease Allah. Also, Turkish sultans for the past forty years did not build any new mosque. Construction began in August 1609 of the year, when the Sultan was 19 years. Ahmed predecessors for the construction of mosques in order to pay, that were produced during the war, but as Ahmed I I did not win any significant war, he had to use money from their treasuries. Organization and description of the works were carefully recorded in six volumes, which are now stored in the library of Topkapi Palace. The site was chosen once, nearby Topkapi Palace. For the purpose of construction of a mosque on the Hippodrome Square buildings were destroyed as a Byzantine, and ranneosmanskogo periods. Among them were the Byzantine Great Palace, remnants of seats Hippodrome and many palace buildings, belonging to the higher nobility.
Mosque Architect - Sedefkar Mehmet Aga, who was a student and assistant chief architect Sinan and decided to surpass his teacher. Mehmet Aga to identify architectural talents served Janissary regiment, where he was responsible for the construction of, related to water supply.
One of the main attractions is the Blue Mosque. It was built in the early sixteenth century, during the reign of Sultan Ahmet. Construction continued 7 years. According to historical data, young Sultan, and it was only at that time 19 years, I had to sign a settlement agreement with the Austrians. To appease the outrage, It was built the Blue Mosque. Turkey signed an agreement on unfavorable conditions, therefore, the sultan ordered to erect a shrine, to prove to the people's commitment to the traditions and faith.
The mosque is impressive in size and today, finishes and decoration. On a relatively small area of elevated architectural complex: the central dome (height 42 m) with massive columns and 8 adjacent cascade semi-dome. They are made in two tiers. Their height and diameter gradually increasing as approaching the central dome. The mosque 6 minarets.
They are decorated in shades of white, blue and blue. On the walls of more than twenty thousand handmade ceramic tiles, hundreds of carpets and lamps. Courtyard limited colonnade thirty towers. Sam Sultan Ahmed died a year after, it was built the Blue Mosque. Turkey – country, where honor history. Near the mosque erected mausoleum, where lie the remains of Sultan Ahmet.
What you need to know visitors?
The Blue Mosque is located in the Sultanahmet district, (Istanbul). To get to there, you must take the tram and get off at the stop Sultanahmet. If you live in this area of the city - you can walk.
The mosque is in force, operation varies and depends on the time of year. In winter (November-March) it is open to 9:00 to 18:00, in the summer - to 21:00.
there you can not get at any time. Several times a day the entrance is closed for tourists - on prayer.
Time is limited to the beginning of the next prayer. Try to have time to come here at the right interval, to have time to look over. The easiest way to go here as part of an organized tour with a guide - then will not have problems with lack of time.
When is it better to come here? Convenient option - in the open, when tourists are not too many. Also, you can see the sights in the late afternoon. Entrance for visitors free, but encouraged to leave a donation. This is done at the discretion of the person.
At the entrance is required to follow the rules and be sure to take off your shoes. It can be put on a shelf or bring along a disposable bag and wear. Women are required to cover the hair and wear a scarf. It is forbidden to come to the mosque with bared shoulders and legs. If you do not take care of it, Inlet lie shawls and skirts, available free. They need to return, going back. Men do not have to come in short shorts.
Useful advice. If you come in the winter and want to visit a mosque - take care of their feet and put on warm socks. Otherwise, you can freeze.
A little history
At the beginning 17 century Turkey, which then rules of Sultan Ahmed I, waged war with two powerful enemies - Iran and Austria. IN 1606 year between Turkey and Austria was signed Zhitvatoroksky world, who completed the Thirteen Years' War, and left without an annual tribute to the Turks. For, to please Allah, a young 19-year-old sultan planned to erect in his honor, the greatest mosque. Construction was started in 1609, and completed in 1616 year.
To clear the area for the construction of a new church, It was demolished several buildings and Byzantine periods ranneosmanskogo, including Vizayntisky Grand Palace. Notably, that mosque was constructed with funds from the treasury of the sultan and was originally named in his honor - Ahmed Mosque.
why blue, if gray?
Construction lasted more 7 years, each step was recorded court chroniclers. General description of the process was 6 heavy volumes, which are stored in the archives of the Topkapı today. Work began in 1609, culminated in 1617 year - the Blue Mosque congregation took.
Sultan Ahmed only 1 year experienced a great event, but still he had time to enjoy the fruits of their labor. It was a unique architectural complex. In addition to direct the mosque and the courtyard are located charitable institutions:
- Primary School;
The last two buildings have not withstood the test of time, other buildings survived.
Externally, the mosque looks gray, and called Blue - what mystery. The answer is, one has only to step inside. Walls, high ceilings, soaring dome lined with white and turquoise tiles handmade. There are other colors - gold, purple, the black, but it 20 thousands of blue tiles subtlest shades set the basic background.
This is only part of the splendor, inside the Blue Mosque is decorated with the most expensive and rare at a time decor. From all corners of the world were brought materials:
- Whole tracts of white marble;
- Black Stone of Mecca - set the mihrab;
- silk carpets;
- Venetian glass;
- unique lamps for lighting.
The walls were decorated with vegetable and flower ornaments, dome painted surahs from the Quran, implementation of this calligraphy.
On Friday, visitors are only allowed to 13.30 hours. Do not dress, leaving the house, in long robes. Summer is hot in Istanbul, capes will be given free admission. Do not bring glass bottles with liquids. not be allowed.
No smoking. Smoking - a sin in Islam. A smoke near the shrine - a special sin, punishable by a fine. Respect for other religions. Do not show their own religious affiliation.
Do not skimp on donations - Sultanahmet these lives. Maintenance of the complex - costly affair.
Nearby are the other attractions. Take a chance and look at everything. Istanbul - the modern city, near the Blue Mosque have your own website. From there you can get information about the schedule of prayers.
It is recommended to inspect the complex in the morning: from 8.30 to 11.30. At this time, no prayers and few tourists. Inside the complex is very nice. Everywhere equipped beds, flowerbeds, installed benches. Sit back and relax in the heat, no one would chase.
With a rich history landmarks introduce guide. English-speaking guide will be able to order online. This eliminates the problems, related to unfamiliarity with the language and rules.
History of the Blue Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey
While, the majority of architectural monuments were erected in honor of military victories in the world, Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Ahmediye), also known as the Blue Mosque, built after the military defeat of Turkey in the early 1600s.
Blue Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey
Who built the Blue Mosque in Istanbul?
In place of the growth period after the fall of Ottoman Empire Byzantine was time transformation. The leader of the Ottomans became a 13-year-old boy. The war with the Persians and Austria played. How to prove himself to the young Sultan, devout follower of Allah, worthy of the throne?
Once the military plans fail, Ahmed then I decided to create a great architectural wonder as a monument to his devotion and faith - Mosque Ahmediya. Beauty and splendor it had to strengthen the spirit of the people and raise the authority of the government.
When these facilities were built with funds, obtained in the course of military victories, it was logical and understandable. The Ottoman Empire was defeated. The people living in poverty. To finance the construction of the Sultan was just the treasury.
When you visit do not forget, it is a religious monument. Therefore it is required to comply with certain rules, established Muslim traditions.
- The woman goes inside just with his head covered in long robes,. Tour give proper apparel inlet.
- Men should also be dressed in trousers. Naked body parts are not welcome.
- Get into the shrine barefoot. Shoes are left at the entrance. Everywhere carpeted, so you can not worry about the cold. Theft is also possible. At first, it is a sin, and secondly - for the left shoe guard watches.
- It is forbidden to take pictures inside. But the outside shooting no one hurt.
- You can not talk loudly, laugh, look at the congregation.
- This action shrine, so there is always a lot of Muslims. Will respect someone else's religion, and do not break the rules adopted.
Mosque architecture combines two styles - classical Ottoman and Byzantine. According to the legend, the Sultan ordered the construction of a standard amount (4) gold (gold) minarets, but the architect that got it wrong and built six (six) minarets. Construction of the mosque lasted for seven years and was completed in 1616 year, a year before the death of Sultan. stone and marble was used for the construction of a mosque. The name "Blue Mosque", she received thanks to the huge number of (more 20 thousand.) blue and white ceramic tiles iznikskih handmade, used in interior decoration. Pottery was delivered from the factory iznikskih, which are famous for their quality. Ahmed I ordered factories to be sent to Istanbul's most beautiful specimens, and banned the export of products to other construction, as a result of factory affairs fell into disrepair. The central hall size 53 x 51 meter diameter dome covered 23,5 meters and a height 43 m. Dome and semi-dome decorated with inscriptions - suras from the Koran and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad, which have been skillfully executed Sayyid Kasym Gubar from Diyarbakir. The dome rests on four huge columns, diameter of 5 m. In the patterns of the mosque is dominated by floral motifs - traditional tulips, lily, carnations and roses, and ornaments of various colors on a white background. Moreover, it has been estimated, that the patterns for ceramic tiles were used more 50 tulips image variations. Floor of the mosque carpets laid. Inside the mosque is well lit - light comes from 260 window. originally glasses, used for windows, They were brought from Venice, but it was later replaced.
One of the striking elements of the mosque is the mihrab - prayer niche, which is cut from a single piece of marble. On it is installed black stone, brought from Mecca. Next to the mihrab is the minbar - a place for the imam's sermons read.
On the west side of the mosque there is a special entrance, over which hangs a chain. This input can use the Sultan, On entering the courtyard of the mosque on a horse. The chain was especially low hanged for, to the Sultan every time leaning, It is symbolizing Sultan insignificance compared with Allah.
The mosque was built as part of a huge architectural complex, which included: madrasah, hospital, charitable institutions, food, khan. In the XIX century hospital and caravanserai were destroyed.
Four minarets of the mosque have three balconies and two minarets with two balconies. Initially, the balconies were 14 in accordance with the number of Ottoman sultans - precursors Ahmed I, including himself. Later added two more balconies, so as sultans ranked sons Ahmed I. Near the mosque is the mausoleum, in which I buried myself Ahmed.
Blue Mosque yard has the same size, as well as the mosque itself. The walls are decorated with arcaded courtyard.
When the construction of the Blue Mosque was completed, it turned, that the greatest shrine of the Islamic world - Masjid al-Haram in Mecca is now equaled by the number of minarets (they were 6) the Mosque of Sultan Ahmet, it was considered sacrilege and it was decided to attach to the Masjid al-Haram, another minaret, so that it once again surpassed all existing facilities.
Due to the unusual shape of the dome it is called "Tulip", although in fact it is so called by the name of Laleli Baba, St., who is buried in this place. The entire religious complex previously consisted of the mosque, school, food, hospital. Some of the buildings were destroyed by numerous earthquakes the Istanbul, and restored in the middle of the 20 century. Laleli - this is the last imperial complex, built in Istanbul.
Inside is lined with colored marble, decorated with mosaics and stone carvings. Under the mosque is an impressive size of the hall - it is here conceived ancient bazaar. Now, instead of the bazaar - a huge shopping mall. Address: Kemal Pasa Mh., 34134 Istanbul
In a dream
Although in general the concept has great architectural value, but they, those involved in astrology and fortune telling, not lack attention this concept. In the dream books can also be found interpretation: "Minaret, what to see him in a dream?»
The building itself is a person, which seeks to unite the other for a good cause. If minaret destroyed, A man dies, and about it will not even remember. To dream about Friday Mosque - a reminder to return to the faith, and fall into the minaret is, that the tide has turned against the dreamer.
at last, I would like to tell a story for skeptics, who do not believe in prophetic dreams. One unknown surveyor saw in a dream, that he climbs on a high minaret made of wood and calls for the prayers of the faithful. Interpreter of thought and predicted, that being a dreamer governor, come to him in honor and power soon. After a short time he became, who had a dream, Deputy Balha, and it is a historical fact.
About eternal matter with humor and practical note
Why complex seems alive, and that draws tourists, except greatness, beauty and harmony? Create more intrigue related to the Blue Mosque Interesting Facts, legends, customs.
- Six minarets had only to Al-Haram, and Sultan Ahmad had to attach to the shrine in Mecca seventh, to regain its status as the most significant.
- During the construction of Sultanahmet were almost ruined factory, producing tiles - products supplied exclusively to the needs of a new mosque.
- In one of the minarets of a carpet museum acts, which are noteworthy exhibits and will raise the interest of art lovers weaving.
- Despite the presence of 6 doors, tourists get to the Blue Mosque after one, by the former racecourse.
- Separate entrance and exist for the country's ruler, low-hanging chain forced him to bow as a sign of recognition of their own insignificance before Allah.